Classification by metal joining method

The methods of joining metals can be broadly divided into mechanical joining and metallurgical joining.
This page introduces the various methods used for joining metals.

Mechanical joining includes bolting, riveting, caulking, shrink fitting, and folding, all of which join workpieces by using mechanical energy.
Metallurgical joining includes fusion welding, pressure welding and brazing/soldering which use different energies.
There are also methods of chemical joining that use adhesives.
Every joining method has advantages and disadvantages. To ensure efficient joining, you need to select the right method according to the materials and joining conditions.

Mechanical joining
Mechanical energy
  • Riveting
  • Caulking
  • Bolting
  • Shrink fitting
  • Folding
Chemical joining
Chemical energy
  • Bonding
Metallurgical joining (welding) Fusion welding
Electrical energy
  • Arc welding
  • Electron beam welding
Chemical energy
  • Gas welding
Light energy
  • Laser welding
Pressure welding
Electrical energy
Resistance welding:
  • Resistance spot welding
  • Projection welding
  • Seam welding
  • Upset welding
  • Flash welding
Chemical energy
  • Explosion welding
Mechanical energy
  • Cold pressure welding
  • Friction welding
  • Friction stir welding (FSW)
  • Ultrasonic welding
  • Diffusion welding
Electrical energy
  • Induction heating brazing (soft brazing = soldering)
Chemical energy
  • Torch brazing (flame brazing)
Light energy
  • Light beam brazing
  • Laser brazing

The classifications above are just an example. There are various ways to classify the types, and some may differ from the table above.