Measurement Sensors

Vibration & Runout Measurement

Vibration and runout measurement are two very important factors associated with rotating machinery in the field of mechanical engineering and mechanical maintenance. Measuring these metrics and subsequently eliminating or minimizing the cause are essential for ensuring the longevity and proper operations of equipment and rotary machines. 

What is Vibration Measurement?

Vibration is a periodic or cyclic (and thus time-based) displacement of an object around its center static position. If all bodies, when perfectly balanced, produce negligible rotation, any rotation outside the tolerable margins is considered negatively impactful on the longevity and proper operation of rotary machines and equipment.
Measuring vibration is complicated due to numerous factors that contribute to vibration, such as the object’s natural frequencies, the amplitude and frequencies of external factors, and the coupling mechanism between the vibrating energy source and the object of interest. It’s commonly observed in misalignments between motor and pump shafts in industrial settings.

How to Measure Vibration

Vibration measurement relies on detecting cyclical displacement using various tools and methods. It’s a crucial part of mechanical maintenance, as it can be used to predict machinery failure. Some commonly used tools for vibration measurement include vibration measurement sensors and meters, accelerometers, seismometers, and laser Doppler vibrometers.

Engine Vibration Measurement

Measure many points on an engine with a multi-point laser system for accurate characterization of engine vibration. With ultra-high speed sensors, even the smallest vibrations can be detected.

Flutter Measurement of Fixing Belt

Measure the position and edge flutter of a belt with two 2D laser profile sensors for stable measurement.

Aluminum Foil Vibration Measurement

Measure the extent of foil vibration just before the slit. Even if the target is tilted due to vibration, the good angle characteristics of the CL-3000 Series enable stable measurement.

Residual Vibration Measurement of Robots

Residual vibration measurement is used to determine how much a robot shakes after stopping. When working with a welding torch or other tool, the measurement location may not always have a flat surface. Using a 2D laser profiler enables accurate measurement on a wide range of surface shapes.

What is Runout Measurement?

Runout is an inaccuracy associated with rotating mechanical systems, which occurs when the shaft doesn’t rotate exactly in line with the main axis. Interestingly enough, runout is dynamic and can’t be entirely removed. Just like vibration measurement, it can’t be eliminated entirely but can be minimized to acceptable levels.
Runout measurement, on the other hand, serves to assess the deviation of a rotating part from its main axis; all rotating systems suffer from runout, and these inaccuracies may compound or cancel out in a rotary system but never entirely dissipate.

How to Measure Runout

Runout measurements are typically assessed as deviations of a rotating part, which includes both radial and axial runout. Some of the most common radial measurement tools include dial indicators (which are the most commonly used tool for measuring runout), laser alignment systems (which are used for more precise measurements) and CMMs.
Eliminating runout is an important factor in establishing operational stability and longevity of your machines and equipment, as it increases operational efficiency and prevents costly breakdowns and downtime associated with unforeseen maintenance.

What Types of Items Experience Runout?

Runout is a mechanical phenomenon that affects a surprisingly wide variety of items, especially those that involve rotational movement or circular components. It’s commonly observed in mechanical and industrial applications, but it’s also found in everyday objects.
Besides rotating machinery parts, runout can happen in automotive components, computer hard disks, optical and measuring instruments, pumps and compressors, turbine blades, rotors, and even DVDs and CDs.
In each of the aforementioned cases, runout is inefficient and causes wear, noise, vibration, and in some cases even operational failure or various safety issues and concerns. It’s therefore important to minimize runout as much as possible.
When selecting a sensor to monitor vibration or deflection, you should consider the accuracy and speed to ensure it's suitable for the amplitude and frequency of your target. You can browse some options below or request a free consultation with a local specialist to get additional recommendations.

Runout Measurement of Brake Disc

High-speed sensors can measure runout of brake discs, regardless of surface finish.

HDD Runout and Height Difference

Ultra-compact ø8 mm heads make it possible to install multiple heads in narrow spaces. This reduces the amount of work spent designing equipment and the number of parts that need to be purchased to measure multiple points in close proximity.

Inspection of Disconnected Electrode Locations

Provide feedback about disconnected locations in electrodes before lamination. Accurately acquire the profile of electrode terminals to perform high-accuracy inspection of edge locations.

Ready to improve your measurement accuracy and efficiency? Contact KEYENCE today to learn more about our cutting-edge displacement sensors!